Directions: Choose the number of the answer choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best completes the blank. Then mark it on your answer sheet.
1- Apart from the ‘armed attack' requirement, the exercise of the right of selfdefense is bound by several other conditions, ........ .......... in Article 51 UN Charter.
1) that are enshrined
2) they are enshrined
3) enshrined they are
4) some of which are enshrined
2- Legislation is not undertaken with a view to the best polis, ... ........ with a view to garden-variety constitutions.
2) but rather
3- A general way of showing the rationality of political obligation ................ that political authority serves the real interests of its subjects.
1) is to prove
2) is proving
3) which proves
4- The researchers proposed two chains, which they believed consisted of elements beyond uranium, ................... its own rate of beta decay.
1) each has
2) and is of
3) each with
4) every one of which to have
5- Oil and other fluids become more viscous as temperatures drop, .................... more work—and thus fuel-is required to overcome friction in the drive-train components.
1) with that meaning
2) which means that
3) that means
4) that it means
6- The doctrine of corporate opportunity requires a corporate director to further the interests of the corporation .................. his uncorrupted business judgment.
1) and give to it the benefit of
2) whose benefit to give to
3) the benefit of which it gives to
4) to give its benefit
7- Commentators have unfairly compared the study of cosmic strings-macroscopic objects that may have been formed in the early universe—to UFOs and homeopathy, on the grounds that cosmic strings have .... ............. to be observed.
1) so far
2) as yet
8- As scientists and engineers unleash fully the power of the gene and of the electron, they will transform bits and pieces of the most fundamental facets of our lives, including eating and reproducing, staying healthy, ........ .......... from serious illness.
1) and of entertaining and recovering
2) being entertained and recovering
3) to be entertained and to recover
4) to entertain and recover
9- A newspaper is a package of content-politics, sport, share prices, weather and so forth—which exists to attract eyeballs to advertisements. Unfortunately for newspapers, the internet is better ....
1) than that of paper in delivering
2) for delivering than paper is for some
3) at delivering some of that than paper is
4) for some of that than paper is in deliverin
10- The researchers asked parents of 1,345 children how much television their kids had watched at the ages of one and three and ............... (based on questions from a hyperactivity behavioral profile) at age seven.
1) were the children able to pay attention well
2) the children were able to pay attention well
3) how well the children were able to pay attention
4) to have the children been able to well pay attention
Directions: Choose the number of the answer choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best completes the blank. Then mark it on your answer sheet.
11- We ................ the company's financial statements for the past five years but found no trace of anything out of the ordinary.
12- The legal document consisted of long paragraphs and sentences replete with subordinate clauses, which really befuddled us all.
13- Tyndall was to a large extent a self-made man; he had no early advantages, but with .................... earnestness devoted himself to study, to which he was stimulated by the writings of Carlyle.
14- The arrogant writer could not believe someone wanted him to .................. his novel by changing some of the unpleasant language.
15- Lord Chief Justice Bates ................. the lower court's decision, which was against Jenkins, and so Jenkins walked free.
2) acquiesced to
3) colluded with
16- These scientists contend that the giant reptiles of primeval times were exterminated by some violent ... ......., there are others who disagree with this theory.
17- For this position we need a man who is thoroughly .............. with modern trends in engineering and who has the ability to impart his knowledge to his audience.
18- Flown into a rage, the lawyers angrily said that it would be a/an ... justice to put an innocent man in jail.
19- The politician was thus early impressed with the necessity for ................... his intention to institute reforms until he should be powerful enough to carry them through.
1) rejoicing in
2) balking at
20- The police are doing all they can to ................ a confession from those accused to have been involved in yesterday's bombing in the central plaza.
Directions: Read the following three passages and choose the number of the answer choice (1), (2), (3), or (4) that best answers each question. Then mark it on your answer sheet.
Once a shining star of free-market capitalism, the country is in economic meltdown. So where did it all go wrong? As Argentina followed its team in the World Cup, one who did not take his usual place in the press box was the sports journalists Horacio Garcia Blanco. A veteran reporter of nine world cups, Blanco was expecting to cover his 10th when his doctors told him that he needed a kidney transplant. It should not have been a problem because Blanco, 65, was comfortably off. He had the money to pay for the operation. But there was one snag. Like millions of other Argentinians, Blanco has had his account frozen since December. Banks only have to pay out if judges rule that there are special circumstances. Blanco's case was not considered serious enough, and he was offered just 10% of his money in devalued pesos. The operation cost a lot more and Blanco perished two weeks before the World Cup.
For many Argentinians, Blanco's story summed up what has been happening to their country over the past four years, as it has been transformed from the blue-eyed boy of Latin American globalization into a country imploding economically, politically and socially. Unemployment is 25%, the economy is contracting at a rate of 15% a year, the central bank is running out of money to defend the currency, and a quarter of children are suffering from malnutrition in a country so rich in farmland that it produces enough to feed 10 times its population. W h ene Oro
Outside the Casa Rosada, where Evita waved to the adoring crowds from the balcony, there are daily demonstrations against the Peronist president, Eduardo Duhalde. These are not demonstrations orchestrated by the young, but by the grande dames of Buenos Aires, banging away on their pots and pans like May Day anarchists but with their hair nicely tinted for the occasion. Argentina's middle class has been impoverished. And it is angry. Very angry indeed.
21- The passage states that Blanco was not in the press box to cover his 10"" World Cup because he was ....
1) overseas for an operation
2) too feeble to do his job
3) no longer alive
4) trying to take a bank loan
22- What is the main purpose of the second paragraph?
1) To caution people against too much trust put in global economic policies
2) To delineate a shortcoming inherent in any free-market capitalism
3) To accentuate the ramifications of an economic recession
4) To illustrate the problem a country was faced with
23- The word "imploding" in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by ...
24- According to the passage, all of the following are true EXCEPT that .......
1) there were many Argentinean people not having easy access to their bank savings
2) the demonstrations going on outside the Casa Rosada are organized by anarchists
3) Argentina has been in sort of economic meltdown for over four years
4) the national currency of Argentina has seen better days
25- What is the paragraph immediately following the passage most likely to deal with?
1) The reasons why Argentina stands where it is now
2) The impact of people's demonstrations on the government's economic policy
3) Some facts and figures to prove that a political turmoil is looming in Argentina
4) An explanation of the effect of Argentia's economic meltdown on the country's middle class
Cultures around the world have vastly different gift-giving customs. But all are based on the same formula: receiving and reciprocating. Such traditions are an integral part of our relationships with family members and peers, evidenced in how central they are to occasions such as birthdays, weddings, and religious holidays and ceremonies. The primary purpose of our gift-giving systems is to affirm, or cut, social ties. An offering expresses our feelings succinctly, and yet we do not have to lay all our cards on the table or get into long personal discussions.
Frequently, however, we feel stressed by the gesture of giving. Psychologists and ethnologists theorize that the pressure does not stem from the nerve-racking search for the right object but rather from the exchange itself, which is a social act. Anxiety arises because of the perception and expectation that each gift, regardless of how voluntary or unnecessary, must be responded to at some point. Indeed, that expectation is again conferred with every new presentation, readily creating a vicious circle that can be difficult to escape_except, perhaps, at the cost of the relationship.
In some cases, a person may withdraw from the cycle, perhaps disappointed in us because we did not make a reciprocating effort to acknowledge his or her friendship or love. It can be equally uncomfortable to accept something with the knowledge that we cannot possibly give anything equivalent in return. If we allow ourselves to be in someone's "debt" instead of turning down the gift with a polite "No, thank you,” giving can be wielded as an instrument of power.
As apparent as these observations seem, many people do not freely admit how much the value of a gift influences them. The two of us discovered this tendency during a recent study of adults. Our subjects admitted only reluctantly that they dig deeper into their pockets the closer their relationship is to a particular individual. The level of generosity can serve as a measuring rod.
This metric is particularly true around the year- end holidays, the quintessential celebrations of love and family. People perform a kind of calculus to match the value of this relationships with the value of the gifts they purchase. In the process the have to reevaluate their friendships and rank them- an emotional stressor by any measure.
26- What is the main rhetorical function of the passage?
1) Definition expanded through description
2) Definition of a process
3) Explicit classification
4) Function description
27- The word "reciprocating" in paragraph 1 could best replaced by which of the following?
1) requiting 2) appreciating
3) relishing 4) unveiling
28- Which one of the following statements about gift- giving is supported by the passage?
1) I, II and V only 2) II. III, and IV only
3) II, IV, and V only 4) II and V only
29- The author refers to a study in paragraph 4 in order to ……….. .
1) emphasize the fact that receiving a gift is not always embraced by people as a friendly gesture.
2) Reveal the fact that people's judgment of other's affluence depends on the gifts they dole out.
3) Show that gifts originate from our need to expose our generosity
4) give credence to an earlier assertion
30- The word "measure" by any measure" (last paragraph) could best be replaced by which of the following?
1) implication 2) criterion
3) evaluation 4) compensation
31- The tone of the passage can best be described as ……… .
3) neutral and objective 4) critical and demanding
The profession's continues use of French, long after it ceased to be a spoken language in England, was not always appreciated by the public. Critics suggested that lawyers wished to hide the law, thereby securing their monopoly on legal services. Lawyers responded that Law French (the distinctive dialect of French used by the English legal profession) was far more precise than English. Moreover, if the law were expressed in English, ordinary people might try to act as their own lawyers and, failing to properly understand the law, would "fall into destruction," in the words of Sir Edward Coke (Tiersman 19999:28-9)
As early as 1362, a statute _ written in French! _ required that all court leading be in English, so that "every man… may the better govern himself without offending of the
Law.” In 1650 Parliament, during the Commonwealth, passed another law requiring that all books of law be only in English. The statute was repealed when the monarchy was restored ten years later. By this time, however, Law French was moribund. Its use in legal proceedings, along with Latin, was finally abolished in 1731 (Tiersma 1999: 35-6)
Documents previously written in French or Latin now had to be composed in English. Rather than translating them into idiomatic English, however, lawyers and clerks tended to favor a very literal, word-for-word, translation. Medieval deeds often began with the words sciant omnes ..., which was translated as "know all men ...” This phrase has been copied verbatim countless times since then. The criminal law concept of malice afore-thought is a direct translation of the Law French phrase malice prepense, preserving the French word order.
32- What is the best title for the passage?
1) Translation of Legal Texts
2) Abandonment of Foreign Law
3) The Rise of English in Legal Language
4) Effect of French and Latin on English Law System
33- What does "it' in paragraph 1 refer to?
2) Use of French
3) Legal profession
4) French as used in the legal profession
34- It can be understood from the passage that in about 1650, the use of French as the language of law ...
1) still dominated the legal parlance in most courts of law, although its use as a vernacular was moribund
2) was as strong as when it was first employed to serve the same end
3) gained currency again
4) was about to vanish
35- The French phrases mentioned in the last paragraph are primarily intended to
1) indicate that English legal people still believed in the superiority of French as the language of law
2) describe the continuity of French law system on that of England
3) shed light on the way legal French was translated
4) unravel the inefficacy of early English translators
Directions: In this part, the questions contain statements or short paragraphs for each of which four choices as translations are presented. For each question, you are to select that option (1), (2), (3), or (4) that represents the closest translation, then mark it on your answer sheet.
Part A. English to Persian
Directions: Choose the best translation for the following English texts.
36- We impressed on the need for urgency and we must ask you to cable by return and tell us what the position is.
۱) ما فوريت کار را به شما خاطرنشان کردیم و مصرانه از شما خواستیم که اوضاع را تلگرافی اطلاع دهید.
۲) ما تحت تأثیر فوریت امر پیش آمده به شما حکم کردیم که مراتب را سریعاً با تلگراف اطلاع دهید.
۳) نیاز به تعجیل به خاطر فوریت به شما گوشزد و نیز خاطرنشان گردید که در بازگشت با تلگراف ما را نیز در جریان امور قرار دهید.
۴) تعجیل شما در اقدام به دلیل فوریت امور قابل درک است و از شما خواهشمند است که مراتب را تلگرافی به ما نیز گزارش دهید.
37- Kindly cancel the credit opened in favor of Mr. Willson as alternative arrangements have been made.
۱) خواهشمند است اعتبار مفتوحه را به نفع آقای ویلسون منتفی و ترتیبات دیگری را در این خصوص اتخاذ نمایید.
۲) خواهشمند است مفتوحه به نفع آقای ویلسون را کم کن یکن تلقی فرمایید زیرا ترتیبات جایگزین دیگری اتخاذ شده است.
۳) لطفاً اعتباری را که مفتوح شده است به خاطر منافع آقای ویلسون کنسل فرمایید زیرا اقدامات جایگزین دیگری مدنظر میباشد.
۴) از آنجایی که امکان اتخاذ تدابیری دیگری موجود است اعتباری که آقای ویلسون افتتاح کرده است فسخ شده فرض بفرمایید.
38- I enclose the letter regarding Albert's Company's claim on some losses made by me during my working as a secretary there.
۱) به پیوست نامه شرکت آلبرت درباره ادعای مربوط به ادعای خسارت از طرف من به آن شرکت در مدت همکاریم را ارائه مینمایم
و ۲) من نامه شرکت آلبرت درباره ادعای ضرر و زیان این شرکت که در طول مدت کار من در آنجا حادث شده است به پیوست جهت ملاحظه ارسال میدارم.
۳) نامه پیوست ادعای ضرر و زیان شرکت آلبرت است که مربوط به فرد و رباتهای این شرکت در دوره کار من به عنوان منشی در آنجا است.
۴) بدین وسیله نامهای در مورد ادعای شرکت آلبرت درباره ضرر و زیانهایی که در مدت کار من به عنوان منشی این شرکت وارده آمده را پیوست مینمایم.
39- Offers must be placed in sealed envelopes, marked A, B, and C and presented as described below.
۱) پیشنهادها بایستی در سه پاکت مهروموم شده که با علامت الف، ب و ج مشخصشدهاند قرار داده شوند و به شکلی که در زیر آمده ارائه شوند.
۲) پیشنهادها در سه پاکت الف، ب و ج که در بسته هستند قرار گیرند و به شرحی که در زیر آمده آماده تحویل گردند.
۳) باید پیشنهادها را در سه پاکت با علامتهای الف، ب و ج قرار داده و به شرح ذیل توصیف و ارائه دهید.
۴) پیشنهادهای قرار گرفته در سه پاکت مهروموم شده را با الف، ب و ج علامت زده و به شرح ذیل تحویل دهید.
40- Kindly credit all sums under $10,000 to our No. 2 account.
1) خواهشمند است سرجمع مبالغ زیر 10000 دلار را به حساب شماره 2 ما واریز نمایید.
۲) خواهشمند است جمع مبالغ پایینتر از 10000 دلار را به حساب شماره ۲ ما منظور فرمایید.
۳) خواهشمند است تمام مبالغ دریافتی زیر مبلغ 10000دلار را به حساب شماره ۲ ما منظور فرمایید.
۴) خواهشمند است تمامی سرجمع حسابهایی که به کمتر از 10000دلار بالغ میشود را به حساب شماره ۲ ما واریز فرمایید.
Part B. Persian to English:
Directions: Choose the best translation for the following Persian texts.
41- تغییرات مکرر در نام این کشور گواهی از آشفتگی سیاسی است که به همراه تاریخ معاصر آن بوده است.
1) That the country has changed its name frequently signals that its people have had a politically hectic history in recent times.
2) The frequent name changes that the country has undergone testify to the political turbulence that has attended its recent history.
3) The name change the country has undergone several times in its contemporary history manifests its political instability.
4) Occasional changes in its name has stemmed from this country's recent history packed with chaotic disasters.
۴۲- تنبيه چنین نقض آشکار مقررات مدرسه چیزی کمتر از اخراج نباید باشد.
1) The flagrant violation of the school's policy should only be punished by the student's being expelled from school.
2) Such a flagrant violation of school policy should be punished by nothing less than expulsion.
3) Expulsion from school should be the right punishment for this flagrant violation of its policy.
4) Punishment of such a flagrant violation of school policy is nothing less than expulsion.
۴۳- به محض شروع کار در آن محیط اداری کوچک، جاناتان دریافت که باید مسئولیتهای چندگانهای را تقبل کند که دانش در موضوعات مختلف را طلب میکرد.
1) When Jonathan began working in that small office, he assumed several responsibilities that demanded expertise in a number of areas.
2) Shortly after Jonathon started his responsibilities in that small office setting, he found that he needed to master several topies to handle his job.
3) Jonathon realized that he had to gain knowledge in several areas to be able to undertake several responsibilities which the job in the small office demanded.
4) Upon staring work in that small office setting, Jonathan found that he had to assume manifold responsibilities which required knowledge in a variety of topics.
۴۴- پلیس که میدانست که انفجاری هم در راه است از جمعیت خواست تا از آتش فاصله بگیرند تا
1) Ordered by the police and knowing that an explosion was also likely, the crowd stepped back from the fire so that no one would be hurt.
2) Knowing that an explosion was also imminent, the policed enjoined the crowd to step back from the fire so that no one would get hurt.
3) The police ordered the crowd to avoid the fire in order that they would not be hurt in the explosion that was about to happen.
4) The people, ordered by the police, distanced themselves from the fire in order not to be hurt in the explosion.
۴۵- اگرچه خیابانها پر از زباله بود ولی مردم در خصوص ظاهر شهر به نظر بیخیال به نظر میرسیدند.
1) The streets were filled with refuse and the people did not attach any importance to it.
2) Though refuse filled the streets, people seemed unconcerned with the appearance of their city.
3) The people did not care about the city and its appearance, although the streets were teeming with refuse.
4) The streets were full of refuse, which did not seem to bother the people about what their city might look like.
۴۶- زمانی که همه چیز خوب پیش میرود صبور و سخاوتمند بودن آسان است، شخصیت واقعی انسان در زمان مشکلات آشکار میشود.
1) It's easy to be patient and generous when things are going well; a person's true character is revealed in hard times.
2) Being tolerant and generous will be easy when things go well; it's adversity which marks your true character.
3) It's not difficult to be patient and generous when everything goes well; this shows your real character in times of difficulty.
4) When things go well everybody will be patient and generous; people show their real character when going through tough times.
۴۷- به گفته بعضی دانشمندان پستانداران بیشتر از دایناسورها عمر کردند چراکه به تغییر آبوهوایی سازگارتر بودند.
1) According to scientists the reason that the mammals lived longer than most of the dinosaurs was their adaptability to climate change.
2) Based on scientific evidence the mammals' adaptability to climate change was the reason they outlived the dinosaurs.
3) Some scientists say that the mammals outlived the dinosaurs because they were more adaptable to a changing climate.
4) Some scientists say that the mammals lived longer than the dinosaurs since they had to adapt to different climates
۴۸- آن دو متغیر مهمی که بر خسارت ناشی از زمینلرزه تأثیرگذار میباشند، شدت لرزش زمین و کیفیت مهندسی سازهها در آن منطقه میباشد.
1) Of all variables, the intensity of ground shaking and the quality of structures in the region are among those variables which affect earthquake damage.
2) The two important variables affecting earthquake damage are the ntensity of ground shaking and the quality of the engineering of structures in the region.
3) Two important variables caused by the earthquake, the shaking intensity and the quality of the engineering of buildings in the area, are those which have special impacts on earthquake damage.
4) Two important variables, namely the ground shaking intensity and the quality of the engineering of structures in the region, affect the severity of damages supposedly linked to the impact of earthquakes.
۴۹- ازآنجاییکه مدار ماه به دور زمین به شکل تخممرغ میباشد، برخی از زمانها ماه به هنگام چرخش خود به دور زمین در نزدیکترین فاصله از زمین قرار میگیرد.
1) Since the moon orbits Earth in an egg-shaped way, sometimes its shortest distance from Earth happens during the lunar cycle.
2) Orbiting in an egg-shaped direction around Earth, sometimes during the lunar cycle the moon gets to a short distance from Earth.
3) Because of its egg-shaped orbit around Earth, there happens to be times during the lunar cycle when the moon gets closer to Earth.
4) Because its orbit around Earth is egg-shaped, there are times during the lunar cycle when the moon is at its shortest distance from Earth.
۵۰- در عصر حاضر واژه «سانتی مانتال» کلمهای تحقیرآمیز است که معمولاً به کارهای هنری و ادبی اطلاق میشود که از برداشتی که بیننده یا خواننده از ادب و معیارهای سلیقه دارد خارج میشود.
1) In modern times "sentimental" is a pejorative term that has been casually applied to works of art and literature that exceed the viewer or reader's sense of decorum and standards of taste.
2) In modern times the reader or viewer uses the term sentimental” in a pejorative sense to refer to works of art and literature which exceed people's sense of decorum and standards of taste.
3) In modern times the use of the term "sentimental in literary and artistic works has a pejorative connotation which exceeds the viewer or reader's sense of decorum and standards of taste.
4) In modern times, the word "sentimental" is a pejorative term that is applied to literary and artistic works which the viewer or reader make it exceed decorum and standards of taste.
Part C. Persian to English
Direction: Choose the best translation for the following Persian texts.
51- با تأمل در مقررات نمونه تجارت الکترونیک کمیسیون سازمان ملل در خصوص حقوق تجارت بینالملل قانون تجارت الکترونیک ایران در سال 1382 به تصویب رسید.
1) By thinking about the sample regulations regarding the United Nations' Electronic Commerce Commission on International Trade Law, the Electronic Commerce Act was approved in 2004.
2) Given the sample regulations on the United Nations' Electronic Commerce Commission regarding International Trade Law, the Electronic Commerce Act was performed in 2004.
4) Through reflection on Electronic Commerce adopted by the United Nations' Commission on International Trade Law, the Electronic Commerce Act was confirmed in 2004.
52- بعد از ثبت در دفتر اسناد رسمی، شماره دفتر و تاریخ ثبت به وسیله سردفتر و نماینده دفتر اسناد رسمی باید در این صفحه قید و امضا شود.
1) Upon recording at a notary public for estates , the relevant notary public's registered number and date will be mentioned by the notary or his agent.
2) After recording at a notary public for estate properties, the pertinent notary public's registered number and date of record shall be signed and mentioned by the notary or his proxy.
3) After recording at a notary public for estate properties, the pertinent notary public's registered number and date of record shall be signed and mentioned by the notary or his proxy.
4) Once registered at a notary public for estate properties, the respective notary public's registered number and date of record shall be entered herein by the notary or his proxy in person.
53- از دیدگاه اقتصادی، انتقال سرمایه، ایجاد ارزش افزوده، درآمدزایی و بهینهسازی فعالیتهای اقتصادی و تجاری، معیارهای انتقالپذیری قرارداد محسوب میشوند.
1) In an economical approach, the transfer of asset, creation of added value, generation income, and adaptation of economical and business activities act as criteria for the assignability of contract.
2) From an economic perspective, the transfer of capital, creation of surplus value, generating revenue, and optimization of economic and commercial activities are deemed to be criteria for assignability of contract.
3) In the economic approach, the transfer of asset, the realization of capital gains, the determine the assignability of contract.
4) From an economical view, the transfer of asset, the realization of capital gains, making income, and adaptation of economical activities are determinants of the assignability of contract.
۵۴- قرارداد بیع متقابل همگرایی مطلوبی میان منافع کارفرما و پیمانکار ایجاد نمیکند و این امر موجب کاهش سودهای ناشی از همکاری میگردد.
1) Buy-back contracts do not create favorable alignment between the interests of employer and contractor and this affair results in a decrease in cooperative profit.
2) Buy-back contracts fail to properly align the interests of employer and contractor and this factor will amount to a decrease in cooperative profit.
3) Buy-back contracts fail to create optimal convergence between the interests of the employer and the contractor, resulting in the reduction of profits made through cooperation.
4) Buy-back contracts do not make optimal convergence between the interests of the employer and the contractor, as a result of which there will be a drop in cooperation profits.
۵۵- حمایت از سرمایهگذاری در چارچوب حقوق بینالملل عرفی به صورت مسئولیت بینالمللی دولت در رفتار با بیگانگان مطرح شده است.
1) The protection of investment within customary international law framework has been addressed as the state's international responsibility for treatment of aliens.
2) Supporting investors in common international law framework is raised in the context of the government's responsibility for the treatment of foreigners.
3) Advocating investment within common international law has been addressed in the context of the government's responsibility for behavior toward foreigners.
4) The protection of investors in customary international law is brought up in the context of state responsibility for the treatment of aliens.
۵۶- چنانچه در مشاعات ساختمان تخلفی صورت گرفته باشد، این سند رسمیت نداشته و خریدار میبایست موارد خلاف را به شهرداری اطلاع دهد.
1) In case of any breaking of the regulations within the overlapping areas, this certificate will be invalidated and the buyer is expected to report the case to the municipality.
2) If there is any violation of the rules within the common elements, this document will no more be valid and the purchaser must report the violations to the mayor.
3) If there is any violation of the rules within the overlapping elements, this document will be nullified and the purchaser should reveal everything to the city hall.
4) In case of any violation of the regulations within the shared areas, this certificate shall be rendered invalid, and the buyer shall disclose violations to the city hall.
۵۷- یکی از مهمترین و اثرگذارترین اموال فکری نوین در حوزه مالکیت ادبی و هنری، آثار سینمایی هستند که مخلوطی از سرمایههای فکری و مالی میباشند.
1) One of the most important and significant novel intellectual properties in the literary and artistic field are cinematographic works which are a mixture of intellectual and financial assets.
2) One of the most important and efficient modern intellectual properties in the literary and artistic field are cinematographic products which are a mixture of intellectual and monetary capitals.
3) One of the most important and effective new intellectual properties in the literary and artistic field are cinematographic products which are an amalgamation of intellectual and monetary capitals.
4) One of the most important and effective novel intellectual properties in the field of literary and artistic ownership are inematographic works which are a combination of intellectual and financial assets.
۵۸- وقوع حوادث محیط کار چارهناپذیر است و در حال حاضر با توجه به نظام مسئولیت مدنی کشور ایران، بار مسئولیت بر کارگر یا کارفرما اجتنابناپذیر است.
1) In the event of work injuries, now, in accordance with Iranian liability law, the burden of that liability is on the employer or employee, which is inevitable.
2) Work injuries are unavoidable and, now, in accordance with Iranian liability law, the burden of that liability on the employer or employee is ineluctable.
3) The occurrence of injuries at work place is unavoidable and given the present Iranian civil liability law, the burden of that liability on the employer or employee is ineluctable.
4) The occurrence of work injuries is ineluctable, and at present considering Iranian civil liability law, the burden of that liability is either on the employer or on the employee, which is inevitable.
۵۹- جرمشناسی همواره بر حقوق کیفری تأثیرگذار بوده است، چنانکه شماری از راهبردها و شیوههای پاسخدهی به بزهکاری در اثر نظریهها و آموزههای آن شکل گرفته و یا متحول شدهاند.
1) Criminology has always had an impact on criminal law, such that certain strategies and methods of responding to criminality have been shaped or changed on the basis of the theories and findings of this field.
2) Criminology has always had an effect on criminal law, in a way that certain strategies and methods of responding to criminality have been formed or changed on the basis of the theories and teachings of this field.
3) Criminology has always had an impact on criminal law; as a consequence, some strategies and methods for the control of criminality have evolved on the basis of the theories and findings of this field.
4) Criminology has always had an effect on criminal law; as a result, some strategies and methods for the control of criminality have emerged on the basis of the theories and teachings of this field.
۶۰- این گواهی براساس اسناد و مدارک ارائه شده از طرف مؤدی صادر گردیده و در صورت وجود مدارکی که حاکی از تعلق مالیات بیشتر به مورد معامله باشد، مابه التفاوت مطالبه خواهد شد.
1) This document is issued based on the given records by the customer and if there are documents attesting to more tax liabilities, the remainder shall be charged accordingly.
2) This certificate was issued based on the given records by the client and if there are documents attesting to further tax liabilities, the remains shall be asked for accordingly.
3) This document is issued based on the submitted records by the client and should there be documents purporting to further tax liabilities, the remains shall be asked for accordingly.
4) This certificate was issued based on the submitted records by the client and should there be documents purporting to more tax liabilities, the remainder shall be charged accordingly.
Part D. Persian to English
Directions: Choose the best translation for the following Persian texts.
۶۱- نظام حقوقی به کمک حقوق اقتصادی پدیدههای جدید اقتصادی را درک کرده و ضمن نظم بخشیدن به روابط در این زمینه، سعی بر ایجاد تعادل در روابط اقتصادی دارد. با این نگاه، حقوق اقتصادی، عامل ایجاد نظم و تعادل در امور حقوقی و سیاست اقتصادی خواهد بود.
1) Legal systems understand new economic phenomena with the help of economic law and, by ordering the relationships in this area, attempt to create balance in economic relationships. In this view, economic law creates order and balance in legal affairs and economic policy.
2) The legal system, with the aid of economic law, understands modern economic phenomena, and while organizing the relationships in this respect, it makes an attempt to maintain balance in economic relations. In this view, economic law anages to create order and balance in legal affairs and economic policy.
3) The legal system with the help of economic law understands modern economic phenomena and, by organizing the relationships in this respect, tries to maintain discipline in economic relationships. In this perspective, economic law is an agent to cause order and balance in legal affairs and economic policy.
4) Legal systems understand new economic phenomena with the assistance of economic law and, by giving order to the relationships in this respect, try to create discipline in economic relationships. In this perspective, economic law is an agent to cause order and balance in legal affairs and economic policy.
۶۲- مقررات مربوط به سرمایهگذاری مندرج در فصل سوم معاهده منشور انرژی، سنگ بنای معاهده است. هدف این مقررات ترویج و حمایت از سرمایهگذاری خارجی در کشورهای عضو است. برای رسیدن به این هدف، معاهده تعدادی حقوق بنیادین به سرمایهگذاران خارجی در رابطه با سرمایهگذاری آنها در کشور میزبان اعطا نموده است.
1) The regulations on investment mentioned in the third chapter of energy charter treaty are the cornerstone of the treaty. The aim of these regulations is to promote and protect foreign investment in member states. To achieve this goal, the treaty has granted a number of fundamental rights to foreign investors in the host state in relation to their investment.
2) Provisions on investment existing in chapter three of energy charter treaty are the cornerstone of the treaty that aim to expand and protect foreign investment in member states. To this end, the treaty gives some vital rights to foreign investors in the host state in the relation to their investment.
3) The regulations on investment inserted in the third chapter of energy charter treaty are the cornerstone of the treaty. The aim of these regulations is to expand and protect foreign investment in member states. To this end, the treaty has bestowed a number of vital rights to foreign investors in the host state in relation to their investment.
4) Provisions on investment contained in the third chapter of energy charter treaty are the cornerstone of the treaty that aims to promote and protect foreign investment in member states. To this end, the treaty confers some fundamental rights to foreign investors in the host state in the relation to their investment.
۶۳- یکی از مهمترین انواع آزادی برای مأموریتهای سیاسی و کنسولی، آزادی ارتباط رسمی با دولت فرستنده یا دیگر نمایندگیهای آن دولت است. یکی از ارکان این آزادی استفاده از پیک برای فرستادن مکاتبات و اسناد دارای ماهیت دیپلماتیک در کیسهای دیپلماتیک بوده است. از سال ۱۹۶۱ آزادی ارتباطات مأموریتهای دیپلماتیک در کنوانسیونهای چهارگانه حقوق دیپلماتیک به صورت مدون درآمدند و مصونیت ارتباطات دیپلماتیک مورد تأکید قرار گرفت.
1) One of the most important freedoms for diplomatic and consular missions is freedom of formal communication with the sender state or its others representatives. One of the pillars of this freedom is using the courier for sending the correspondences and documents with diplomatic bag. Freedom of communications of diplomatic missions was codified in the four conventions of diplomatic law since 1961.
2) One of the most essential freedoms for diplomatic and consular missions is freedom of formal communication with the sending state or its other agents. One of the bases of this freedom is using the courier for sending the correspondences and documents with diplomatic bag. Freedom of communications of diplomatic missions was codified and emphasized in the four conventions of diplomatic law since 1961.
3) One of the most important types of freedom for diplomatic and consular missions is freedom of formal communication with the dispatching state or its other representatives. One of the pillars of this freedom is using the courier for sending diplomatic-like correspondences and documents in a diplomatic bag. Since 1961, freedom of communications of diplomatic missions has been codified in the four conventions of diplomatic law along with emphasis on immunity of diplomatic communications.
4) One of the most significant types of freedom for diplomatic and consular missions is freedom of formal communication with the sending state or its other envoys. One of the bases of this freedom is using the courier for sending diplomatic correspondences and documents in a diplomatic bag. Since 1961, liberty of communications of diplomatic missions has been codified in the four conventions of diplomatic law and immunity of diplomatic communications has been heavily stressed.
۶۴- یکی از مسائل مطروحه در حوزه حقوق مخاصمات مسلحانه، کاربرد مزدور توسط طرفین درگیر در مخاصمه است. کنکاش در سیر اوضاع عالم، نشان میدهد که پدیده مزدوری از گذشتههای بسیار دور موضوع مهمی بوده است. اگرچه استفاده و استخدام مزدور تا مدتها امری معمول و متداول تلقی میشده است، لیکن عملکرد مزدوران بالأخص در قاره آفریقا در دوران استعمارزدایی، رویکرد بینالمللی نسبت به پدیده مزدوری را تغییر داده است.
1) One of the issues raised in the law of armed conflicts is the use of mercenaries by parties in conflicts. Analysis of the global situation indicates that mercenaries have been used for a very long time in the past. However, although the use and recruitment of mercenaries has been usual for a long time, the practice of mercenaries especially in Africa during the period of decolonization leads to a change in international approach towards this phenomenon.
2) One of the issues put forth in the field of armed conflicts law is the use of mercenaries by parties in dispute. A probe into the world status shows that using mercenaries has been an important issue since a long time ago. However, although the employment of mercenaries has been ordinary for a long time, the practice of mercenaries particularly in Africa during the period of decolonization has altered the international view to this phenomenon.
3) One of the issues raised in the field of armed conflicts law is the use of mercenaries by parties in conflict. An investigation of the world status indicates that the idea of using mercenaries has been an important issue since a long time ago. However, although the use and recruitment of mercenaries has been common for a long time, the practice of mercenaries especially in Africa during the period of decolonization has changed the international approach to this phenomenon.
4) One of the issues put forth in the law of armed conflicts is the use of mercenaries by parties in clash. Analysis of the global situation points out that mercenaries have been used for a very long time in the past. However, although the employment of mercenaries has been normal for a long time, the practice of mercenaries particularly in Africa during the period of decolonization has resulted in a change in international view towards this phenomenon.
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